Urea Concentrations in Pool Water


A major CONTAMINANT in AQUATIC VENUE water is urea. Urea is chiefly derived from swimmers urinating in AQUATIC VENUE water, but is also present in swimmer’s sweat. It has been shown that urea reacts with hypochlorous acid to produce TRICHLORAMINE. However, while breakpoint destruction of ammonia is very fast, reaction of hypochlorous acid with urea is very slow. Therefore, urea is difficult to remove quickly by shocking the AQUATIC VENUE water. There are no guidelines in the U.S. for MONITORING the urea concentration in AQUATIC VENUE water or suggested levels of concern. Input of urea is most effectively minimized by changes in swimmers’ behavior and hygiene.76,77, 78,79,80

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